Refereed Journal Articles

Bialystok, E., & Werker, J.F. (in press). The systematic effects of bilingualism on children’s development. Developmental Science.

Anderson, J.A.E., Saleemi, S., & Bialystok. E. (in press). Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive aging in monolingual and bilingual older adults. Journal of Neurolinguistics.

Chung-Fat-Yim, A., Sorge, G.B., & Bialystok, E. (in press). The relationship between bilingualism and selective attention in young adults: Evidence from an ambiguous figures task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.

Narayan, C.R., Mak, L., &  Bialystok, E. (in press). Words get in the way: Linguistic effects on talker discrimination. Cognitive Science.

Thomas-Sunesson, D., Hakuta, K., & Bialystok, E. (in press). Degree of bilingualism modifies executive control in Hispanic children in the US. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.

Sorge, G., Toplak, M., & Bialystok, E. (in press). Interactions between levels of attention ability and levels of bilingualism in children’s executive functioning. Developmental Science.

Bialystok, E., Hawrylewicz, K., Wiseheart, M., & Toplak, M. (in press). Interaction of bilingualism and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in young adults. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition.

Bialystok, E. (in press). Bilingual education for young children: Review of the effects and consequences. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.

Bialystok, E. (2016). The signal and the noise: Finding the pattern in human behavior. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6, 517-534.

Clare, L., Whitake, C.J., Craik, F.I.M., Bialystok, E., Martin-Forbes, P.J., Bastable, A., Martyr, A., Pye, K., Quinn, C., Thomas, E., Mueller Gathercole, V.C., & Hindle, J.V. (2016). Bilingualism, executive control and age at diagnosis among people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease in Wales. Journal of Neuropsychology, 10, 163-185.

Barac, R., Moreno, S., & Bialystok, E. (2016). Behavioral and electrophysiological differences in executive control between monolingual and bilingual children. Child Development, 87, 1277-1290.

Friesen, D.C, Oh, J., & Bialystok, E. (2016). Phonologically-mediated meaning activation in monolinguals and bilinguals: Evidence from homophone effects in ERP. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6, 262-.289.

Bialystok, E. (2016). Aging and bilingualism: Why does it matter? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6, 1-8.

Bialystok, E. (2016). How hazy views become full pictures. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31, 328-330.

Sullivan, M.D., Prescott, Y., Goldberg, D., & Bialystok, E. (2016). Executive control processes in verbal and nonverbal working memory: The role of aging and bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6, 147-170.

Bialystok, E., Abutalebi, J., Bak, T.H., Burke, D.M., & Kroll, J.F. (2016). Aging in two languages: Implications for public health. Ageing Research Reviews, 27, 56-60. PMID26993154

Astheimer, L.B., Berkes, M., & Bialystok, E. (2016). Differential allocation of attention during speech perception in monolingual and bilingual listeners. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31, 196-205.

Wiseheart, M., Viswanathan,M., & Bialystok, E. (2016). Flexibility in task switching by monolinguals and bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 141-146.PMC4749032

Janus, M., Lee, Y., Moreno, S., & Bialystok, E. (2016). Effects of short term music and second
language training on executive control. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 144, 84-97. PMC4376572

Friesen, D.C., Chung-Fat-Yim, A., & Bialystok, E. (2016). Lexical selection differences in monolingual and bilingual listeners. Brain and Language, 152, 1-13. PMC4713266

Friesen, D.C., Latman, V., Calvo, A., & Bialystok, E. (2015). Attention during visual search: The benefit of bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19, 693-702.

Rose, N.S., Luo, L., Bialystok, E., Hering, A., Lau, K., & Craik, F.I.M. (2015). Cognitive processes in the Breakfast Task: Planning and monitoring. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 252-263.PMID25938251

Bialystok, E., Kroll, J.F., Green, D.W., MacWhinney, B., Craik, F.I.M. (2015). Publication bias and the validity of evidence: What’s the connection? Psychological Science, 944-946.PMID25944774

Olsen, R.K., Pangelinan, M.M., Bogulski, C., Chakravarty, M.M., Luk, G., Grady, C., & Bialystok, E. (2015). The effect of lifelong bilingualism on regional grey and white matter volume. Brain Research, 1612, 128-139.

Bogulski, C.A., Rakoczy, M., Goodman, M., & Bialystok, E. (2015). Executive control in fluent and lapsed bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18, 561-567.

Poarch, G.J. & Bialystok, E. (2015). Bilingualism as a model for multitasking. Developmental Review, 35, 113-124.

Bialystok, E. (2015). Bilingualism and the development of executive function: The role of attention. Child Development Perspectives, 9, 117-121. PMC4442091

Moreno, S., Lee, Y., Janus, M., & Bialystok, E. (2015). Short-term second language and music training induces lasting functional brain changes in early childhood. Child Development, 86, 394-406.

Hindle, L., Martin-Forbes, P., Bastable, A., Pye, K., Martyr, A., Whitaker, C., Craik, F.I.M., Bialystok, E., Thomas, V., Mueller-Gathercole, V., & Clare, L. (2015). Cognitive reserve in Parkinson’s disease: The effects of Welsh-English bilingualism on executive function. Parkinson’s Disease, Article ID 943572,

Peets, K., & Bialystok, E. (2015). Academic discourse: Dissociating standardized and conversational measures of language proficiency in bilingual kindergarteners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36, 437-461.

Friesen, D.C., Luo, L., Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2015). Proficiency and control in verbal fluency performance across the lifespan for monolinguals and bilinguals. Language,Cognition and Neuroscience, 30, 238-250. PMC4309987

Grady, C.L., Luk, G., Craik, F.I.M., & Bialystok, E. (2015). Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults. Neuropsychologia, 66, 170-181.

Sullivan, M.D., Janus, M.K., Moreno, S., Astheimer, L., & Bialystok, E. (2014). Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: Evidence from ERP. Brain and Language, 139, 84-98.

Barac, R., Bialystok, E., Castro, D.C., & Sanchez, M. (2014). The cognitive development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 699-714.

Kielar, A., Meltzer, J.A., Moreno, S., Alain, C., & Bialystok, E. (2014). Oscillatory responses to semantic and syntactic violations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26, 2840-2862.

Bialystok, E., Poarch, G., Luo, L, & Craik, F.I.M. (2014). Effects of bilingualism and aging on executive function and working memory. Psychology and Aging, 29, 696-705. PMC4274603

Bialystok, E., & Poarch, G. (2014). Language experience changes language and cognitive ability. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft,17, 433-446. PMC4243303

Bialystok, E. (2014). Neuroplasticity as a model for bilingualism: Commentary on Baum and Titone. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 899-902.

Freedman, M., Alladi, S., Chertkow, H., Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Phillips, N.A., Vasanta, D., Bapi Raju, S., & Bak, T.H. (2014). Delaying onset of dementia: Are two languages enough? Behavioural Neurology, 2014, 808137. PMC4052164.

Moreno, S., Wodniecka, Z., Tays, W., Alain, C., & Bialystok, E. (2014). Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: Event Related Potential (ERP) evidence for experience-specific effects. PLOS ONE, 9, e94169.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Binns, M.A., Ossher, L., & Freedman, M. (2014). Effects of bilingualism on the age of onset and progression of MCI and AD: Evidence from executive function tests. Neuropsychology, 28, 290-304.

Astheimer, L., Janus, M., Moreno, S., & Bialystok, E. (2014). Electrophysiological measures of attention during speech perception predict metalinguistic skills in children. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 7, 1-12.

Calvo, A., & Bialystok, E. (2014). Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning. Cognition, 130, 278-288. PMC3921957

Bialystok, E., Peets, K., & Moreno, S. (2014). Producing bilinguals through immersion education: Development of metalinguistic awareness. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 177-191. PMC3987956

Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 605-621. PMC3780436

Kroll, J.F., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Understanding the consequences of bilingualism for language processing and cognition. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 497-514. PMC3820916

Schweizer, T., Craik, F.I.M., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Bilingualism, not immigration status, is associated with maintained cognitive level in Alzheimer's disease, Cortex, 49, 1442-1443.

Luo, L., Craik, F.I.M., Moreno, S., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Bilingualism interacts with domain in a working memory task: Evidence from aging. Psychology and Aging, 28, 28-34. PMID23276212

Poulin-Dubois, D., Bialystok, E., Blaye, A., Polonia, A., & and Yott, J. (2013). Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17, 57-70.

Greenberg, A., Bellana, B., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Perspective-taking ability in bilingual children: extending advantages in executive control to spatial reasoning. Cognitive Development, 28, 41-50. PMID23486486

Ossher, L., Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Murphy, K.J., & Troyer, A.K. (2013). The effect of bilingualism on amnestic mild cognitive impairment. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68, 8-12. PMID 22454387

Morales, J., Calvo, A., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Working memory development in monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114, 187-202. PMID23059128

Engel de Abreu, P.M.J., Cruz-Santos, A., Tourinho, C.J., Martin, R., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Bilingualism enriches the poor: Enhanced cognitive control in low-income minority children. Psychological Science, 23, 1364 - 1371. PMID23044796

Friesen, D. C., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Metalinguistic ability in bilingual children: The role of executive control. Rivista di Psicolinguistica Applicata/Journal of Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 47-56.

Yim, O., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Degree of conversational code-switching enhances verbal task switching in Cantonese-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 873-883.

Schweizer, T., Ware, J., Fischer, C.E., Craik, F.I.M., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: Evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 48, 991-996. PMID21596373

Hermanto, N., Moreno, S., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Linguistic and metalinguistic outcomes of intense immersion education: How bilingual? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15, 131-145. PMID22468133

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., & Luk, G. (2012). Bilingualism: Consequences for mind and brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 240-250. PMID22464592

Barac, R., & Bialystok, E. (2012). Bilingual effects on cognitive and linguistic development: Role of language, cultural background, and education. Child Development, 83, 413-422. PMC3305827

Bialystok, E., & Barac, R. (2012). Emerging bilingualism: Dissociating advantages for metalinguistic awareness and executive control. Cognition, 122, 67-73. PMID21906732

Bialystok, E., & Luk, G. (2012). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual adults. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 397-401.

Moreno, S., Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Schellenberg, E.G., Cepeda, N.J., & Chau, T. (2011). Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function. Psychological Science, 22, 1425-1433. PMC3449320

Bialystok, E. (2011). Reshaping the mind: The benefits of bilingualism. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 229-235. PMID21910523

Moreno, S., Friesen, D., & Bialystok, E. (2011). Effect of music training on promoting preliteracy skills: Preliminary causal evidence. Music Perception, 29, 165-172.

Luk, G., Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., & Grady, C. (2011). Lifelong bilingualism maintains white matter integrity in older adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 16808-16813. PMID22090506

Luk, G., de Sa, E., & Bialystok, E. (2011). Is there a relation between onset age of bilingualism and enhancement of cognitive control? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14, 588-595.

Bialystok, E. (2011). Coordination of executive functions in monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110, 461-468. PMID21683958

Bialystok, E. (2011). How does experience change cognition? Evaluating the evidence. British Journal of Psychology, 102, 303-305. PMID21751988

Poulin-Dubois, D., Blaye, A., Coutya, J., & Bialystok, E. (2011). The effects of bilingualism on toddlers’ executive functioning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 567-579. PMID21122877

Barac, R., & Bialystok, E. (2011). Research timeline: Cognitive development of bilingual children. Language Teaching, 44, 36-54.

Luk, G., Anderson, J.A.E., Craik, F.I.M., Grady, C., & Bialystok, E. (2010). Distinct neural correlates for two types of inhibition in bilinguals: Response inhibition versus interference suppression. Brain and Cognition, 74, 347-357. PMID20965635

Craik, F.I.M., Bialystok, E., & Freedman, M. (2010). Delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease: Bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology, 75, 1726-1729. PMID21060095

Wodniecka, Z., Craik, F.I.M., Luo, L., & Bialystok, E. (2010). Does bilingualism help memory? Competing effects of verbal ability and executive control. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13, 575–595.

Bialystok, E., Barac, R., Blaye, A., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2010). Word mapping and executive functioning in young monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11, 485-508. PMID21197133

Moreno, S., Bialystok, E., Wodniecka, Z., & Alain, C. (2010). Conflict resolution in sentence processing by bilinguals. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 23, 564-579. PMID21057658

Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K.F., & Yang, S. (2010). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 525-531.

Bialystok, E. (2010). Bilingualism. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews: Cognitive science, 1, 559-572.

Bialystok, E., & Craik, F.I.M. (2010). Cognitive and linguistic processing in the bilingual mind. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 19-23.

Peets, K.F., & Bialystok, E. (2010). An integrated approach to the study of SLI and bilingualism. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 90-95.

Bialystok, E. (2010). Global-local and trail-making tasks by monolingual and bilingual children: Beyond inhibition. Developmental Psychology 46, 93-105. PMID20053009

Luo, L., Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2010). Effect of language proficiency and executive control on verbal fluency performance in bilinguals. Cognition, 114, 29-41. PMID19793584

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Green, D.W., & Gollan, T.H. (2009). Bilingual minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10, 89-129.

Bialystok, E., & Viswanathan, M. (2009). Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures. Cognition, 112, 494–500. PMID19615674

Bialystok, E. (2009). Claiming evidence from non-evidence: A reply to Morton and Harper. Developmental Science, 12, 499-501. PMC2737318

Bialystok, E., & Feng, X. (2009). Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: Evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults. Brain and Language, 109, 93-100. PMID18834625

Bialystok, E., & DePape, A-M. (2009). Musical expertise, bilingualism, and executive functioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 565-574. PMID19331508

Bialystok, E. (2009). Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 3-11.

Emmorey, K., Luk, G., Pyers, J., & Bialystok, E. (2008). The source of enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals. Psychological Science, 19, 1201-1206. PMID19121123

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., & Luk, G. (2008). Lexical access in bilinguals: Effects of vocabulary size and executive control. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21, 522-538.

Bialystok, E., & Craik, F.I.M., & Stefurak, T. (2008). Planning and task management in Parkinson’s disease: Differential emphasis in dual-task performance. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 257-265. PMID18282323

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., & Luk, G. (2008). Cognitive control and lexical access in younger and older bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 859-873. PMID18605874

Luk, G., & Bialystok, E (2008). Common and distinct cognitive bases for reading in English-Cantonese bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29, 269-289.

Martin-Rhee, M.M., & Bialystok, E. (2008). The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 81-93.

Bialystok, E. (2007). Language acquisition and bilingualism: Consequences for a multilingual society. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 393-397.

Bialystok, E., & Luk, G. (2007). The universality of symbolic representation for reading in Asian and alphabetic languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 121-129.

Bialystok, E. (2007). Acquisition of literacy in bilingual children: A framework for research. Language Learning Supplement: The Best of Language Learning, 57, 45-77.

Bialystok, E. (2007). Cognitive effects of bilingualism: How linguistic experience leads to cognitive change. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10, 210-223.

Fernandes, M.A., Craik, F.I.M., Bialystok, E., & Kreuger, S. (2007). Effects of bilingualism, aging, and semantic relatedness on memory under divided attention. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 128-141.

Bialystok, E., & Craik, F.I.M. (2007). Bilingualism and naming: Implications for cognitive assessment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 209-211.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., & Freedman, M. (2007). Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia, 45, 459-464.

Craik, F.I.M., & Bialystok, E. (2006). Planning and task management in older adults: Cooking breakfast. Memory and Cognition, 34, 1236-1249.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified anti-saccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1341-1354.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., & Ruocco, A.C. (2006). Dual modality monitoring in a classification task: The effects of bilingualism and aging. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (A), 59, 1968–1983.

Flege, J., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., Mack, M., Sung, H., & Tsukada, K. (2006). Degree of foreign accent in English sentences produced by Korean adults and children. Journal of Phonetics, 34, 153-175.

Craik, F.I.M., & Bialystok, E. (2006). Cognition through the lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 131-138.

Bialystok, E. (2006). Effect of bilingualism and computer video game experience on the Simon task. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 68-79.

Craik, F., & Bialystok, E. (2006). Izmenenie kognitivnykh funktsij v techenie zhizni (Changes in cognitive functions across the lifespan). Psichologija. Zhournal Vysshej Skoly Ekonomiki, 3, 73-85. (in Russian).

Bialystok, E., McBride-Chang, C., & Luk, G. (2005). Bilingualism, language proficiency, and learning to read in two writing systems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 580-590.

Bialystok, E., & Shapero, D. (2005). Ambiguous benefits: The effect of bilingualism on reversing ambiguous figures. Developmental Science, 8, 595-604.

Bialystok, E., Martin, M.M., & Viswanathan, M. (2005). Bilingualism across the lifespan: The rise and fall of inhibitory control. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9, 103-119.

Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2005). How iconic are Chinese characters? Bilingualism:Language and Cognition, 8, 79-83.

Wiley, E., Bialystok, E., & Hakuta, K. (2005). New approaches to using census data to test the critical-period hypothesis for second-language acquisition. Psychological Science, 16, 341-343.

Bialystok, E., Luk, G., & Kwan, E. (2005). Bilingualism, biliteracy, and learning to read: Interactions among languages and writing systems. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 43-61.

Craik, F.I.M., & Bialystok, E. (2005). Intelligence and executive control: Evidence from aging and bilingualism. Cortex, 41, 222-224.

Tsukada, K., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., Mack, M., Sung, H., and Flege, J. (2005). A developmental study of English vowel production and perception by native Korean adults and children. Journal of Phonetics, 33, 263-290.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Grady, C., Chau, W., Ishii, R., Gunji, A., & Pantev, C. (2005). Effect of bilingualism on cognitive control in the Simon task: Evidence from MEG. NeuroImage, 24, 40-49.

Tsukada, K., Birdsong, D., Mack, M., Sung, H., Bialystok, E., & Flege, J. (2004). Release bursts in English word-final voiceless stops: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Korean adults’ and children’s speech production. Phonetica, 61, 67-83.

McBride-Chang, C., Bialystok, E., Chong, K.K.Y., & Li, Y. (2004). Levels of phonological awareness in three cultures. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 89, 93-111.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F.I.M., Klein, R., & Viswanathan, M. (2004). Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon task. Psychology and Aging, 19, 290-303.

Bialystok, E., & Martin, M.M. (2004). Attention and inhibition in bilingual children: Evidence from the dimensional change card sort task. Developmental Science, 7, 325-339.

Bialystok, E., & Senman, L. (2004). Executive processes in appearance-reality tasks: The role of inhibition of attention and symbolic representation. Child Development, 75, 562-579.

Bialystok, E., Sherry, S.B., Shanker, S, & Codd, J. (2003). Executive function deficits in children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 7, 37-55.

Bialystok, E., & Martin, M.M. (2003). Notation to symbol: Development in children’s understanding of print. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 86, 223-243.

Bialystok, E., Majumder, S., & Martin, M.M. (2003). Developing phonological awareness: Is there a bilingual advantage? Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 27-44.

Hakuta, K., Bialystok, E., & Wiley, E. (2003). Critical evidence: A test of the critical period hypothesis for second language acquisition. Psychological Science, 14, 31-38.

Bialystok, E. (2002). On the reliability of robustness: A reply to DeKeyser. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 481-488.

Bialystok, E. (2002). Acquisition of literacy in bilingual children: A framework for research. Language Learning, 52, 159-199.

Tsukada, K., Mack, M., Sung, H., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., & Flege, J. (2002). Release busts in English word-final stops: A longitudinal study of Korean adults’' and children’s production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 111, 2364.

Bialystok, E. (2001). Metalinguistic aspects of bilingual processing. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 169-181.

Flege, J., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., Mack, M., and Sung, H. (2001). The pronunciation of English sentences by Korean children and adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110, 2684.

Bialystok, E. (2000). Symbolic representation across domains in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 76, 173-189.

Bialystok, E. (2000). Letters, numbers, words, and signs: How bilinguals learn them. International Journal of Psychology, 35, 275-285.

Bialystok, E., & Codd, J. (2000). Representing quantity beyond whole numbers: some, none, and part. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 117-128.

Bialystok, E., Shenfield, T., & Codd, J. (2000). Languages, scripts, and the environment: Factors in developing concepts of print. Developmental Psychology, 36, 66-76.

Majumder, S., Martin, M., & Bialystok, E. (2000). The acquisition of phonological awareness in Spanish-English bilingual children. Spanish Applied Linguistics, 4, 247-265.

Bialystok, E. (1999). Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind. Child Development, 70, 636-644.

Bialystok, E., & Herman, J. (1999). Does bilingualism matter for early literacy? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 2, 35-44.

Bialystok, E., & Miller, B. (1999). The problem of age in second language acquisition: Influences from language, task, and structure. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 2, 127-145.

Bialystok, E. (1998). Beyond binary options: Effects of two languages on the bilingual mind. Studia Anglica Posnaniensia, 33, 47-60.

Bialystok, E. (1998). Coming of age in applied linguistics. Language Learning, 48, 497-518.

Bialystok, E. (1998). What's in a process? Explaining development in language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 21-22.

Bialystok, E., & Majumder, S. (1998). The relationship between bilingualism and the development of cognitive processes in problem-solving. Applied Psycholinguistics, 19, 69-85.

Bialystok, E. (1997). The structure of age: In search of barriers to second-language acquisition. Second Language Research, 13, 116-137.

Bialystok, E. (1997). Effects of bilingualism and biliteracy on children’s emerging concepts of print. Developmental Psychology, 33, 429-440.

Bialystok, E., & Codd, J. (1997). Cardinal limits: Evidence from language awareness and bilingualism for developing concepts of number. Cognitive Development, 12, 85-106.

Bialystok, E., & Codd, J. (1996). Developing representations of quantity. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 28, 281-291.

Bialystok, E. (1995). Making concepts of print symbolic: Understanding how writing represents language. First Language, 15, 317-338.

Bialystok, E. (1994). Analysis and control in the development of second language proficiency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 157-168.

Jenkin, H., Prior, S., Rinaldo, R., Wainwright-Sharp, A., & Bialystok, E. (1993). Understanding text in a second language: A psychological approach to an SLA problem. Second Language Research, 9, 118-139.

Bialystok, E. (1992). Symbolic representation of letters and numbers. Cognitive Development, 7, 301-316.

Bialystok, E. (1992). The emergence of symbolic thought. Cognitive Development, 7, 269-272.

Bialystok, E. (1992). Attentional control in children's metalinguistic performance and measures of field independence. Developmental Psychology, 28, 654-664.

Bialystok, E. (1991). Letters, sounds, and symbols: Changes in children’s understanding of written language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 75-89.

Bialystok, E. (1990). The competence of processing: Classifying theories of second-language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 635-648.

Bialystok, E. (1990). The dangers of dichotomy: A reply to Hulstijn. Applied Linguistics, 11, 46-51

Bialystok, E., & Niccols, A. (1989). Children’s control over attention to phonological and semantic properties of words. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 18, 369-387.

Bialystok, E. (1989). Children’s mental rotations of abstract displays. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 47, 47-71.

Bialystok, E. (1988). Levels of bilingualism and levels of linguistic awareness. Developmental Psychology, 24, 560-567.

Bialystok, E.  (1988). Aspects of linguistic awareness in reading com­prehen­sion. Applied Psycholinguis­tics, 9, 123-139.

Bialystok, E.  (1987). Influences of bilingualism on metalinguistic development. Second Language Research, 3, 154-166.

Bialystok, E.  (1987). Words as things:  Development of word concept by bilingual children. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 9, 133-140.

Bialystok, E., & Codd, J. (1987). Children’s interpretations of ambiguous spatial descriptions. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 205-211.

Bialystok, E., & Mitterer, J. (1987). Metalinguistic differences among three kinds of readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 147-153.

Bialystok, E. (1986). Factors in the growth of linguistic awareness. Child Development, 57, 498-510.

Bialystok, E. (1986). Children’s concept of word. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 15, 13-32.

Bialystok, E. (1985). The compatibility of teaching and learning strategies. Applied Linguistics, 6, 255‑262.

Bialystok, E., & Ryan, E. B. (1985). Towards a definition of metalinguistic skill. Merrill‑Palmer Quarterly, 31, 229‑251.

Bialystok, E., & Ryan, E. B. (1985). On precision and the virtue of simplicity. Merrill‑Palmer Quarterly, 31, 261‑265.

Bialystok, E., & Sharwood Smith, M. (1985). Interlanguage is not a state of mind: An evaluation of the construct for second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 6, 101‑117.

Bialystok, E. (1983). On learning language form and language function. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, 7, 54‑70.

Bialystok, E. (1982). On the relationship between knowing and using linguistic forms. Applied Linguistics, 3, 181‑206.

Bialystok, E. (1981). The role of linguistic knowledge in second language use. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 4, 31‑45.

Bialystok, E., & Frohlich, M. (1980).  Oral communication strategies for lexical difficulties.  Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, 5, 3‑30.

Bialystok, E. (1979). The role of conscious strategies in second language proficiency.  Canadian Modern Language Review, 35, 272‑294.

Bialystok, E. (1979). Explicit and implicit judgments of L2 grammaticality. Language Learning, 9, 81‑103.

Bialystok, E. (1979). An analytical view of second‑language competence: A model and some evidence.  Modern Language Journal, 63, 257‑262.

Bialystok, E., & Howard, J. (1979). Inferencing as an aspect of close test performance. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 17, 24‑36. (ED169774)

Bialystok, E. (1978). A theoretical model of second language learning. Language Learning, 28, 69‑83.

Reprinted in Italian in: (1990). Un modello teorico dell'apprendimento di una seconda lingua. In P. Giunchi (Ed.), Grammatica esplicita e grammatica implicita. Bologna: Zanichelli S.p.A..

Reprinted in Spanish in: (1992). In J.Liceras (Ed.), La adquisición de lenguas extranjeras: Hacia un modelo de análisis de la interlengua. Madrid: Visor.

Bialystok, E., & Frohlich, M. (1978). Variables of classroom achievement in second language learning.  Modern Language Journal, 62, 327‑335.

Bialystok, E., & Frohlich, M. (1978). The Aural Grammar Test: Description and implications. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 15, 15‑35.  (ED153267)

Bialystok, E., & Swain, M. (1978). Methodological approaches to research in second language learning. McGill Journal of Education, 8, 137‑144.

Bialystok, E., & Frohlich, M. (1977).  Aspects of second language learning in classroom settings.  Working Papers on Bilingualism, 13, 1‑26.


Monographs, Edited Books, Special Issues

Bialystok, E., & Crago, M. (Eds.) (2007).  Language acquisition and bilingualism:  Special issue of Applied Psycholinguistics.  New York:  Cambridge University Press.

Bialystok, E., & Craik, F.I.M. (Eds.). (2006). Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change.  New York:  Oxford University Press.

Bialystok, E. (2001).  Bilingualism in development: Language, literacy, and cognition.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Arabic Translation (2003), King Saud University Press, Saudi Arabia.

Bialystok, E., & Hakuta, K. (1994).  In other words: The psychology and science of second language acquisition.  New York: Basic Books.

Japanese Translation (2003), Shinyosha Ltd., Japan.

Bialystok, E. (Ed.) (1991).  Language processing in bilingual children.  London: Cambridge University Press.

Bialystok, E. (1990).  Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second-language use.  Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Olson, D.R., & Bialystok, E. (1983).  Spatial cognition:  The structure and development of the mental representation of spatial relations.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Chapters in Books

Bialystok, E. (in press). The impact of bilingualism on cognition. In R. Scott & S. Kosslyn (Eds.), Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Hoboken, NJ:  John Wiley and Sons

Bialystok, E., & Craik, F.I.M. (2015). Cognitive consequences of bilingualism: Executive control and cognitive reserve. In J.W. Schwieter (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Bilingual Processing (pp. 571-585). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bialystok, E. (2014). Språkerfaring endrar språklege og kognitive evner. In E. Brunstad, A.-K.H. Gujord, & E. Bugge (Eds.), Rom for Språk: Nye Innsikter I Språkleg Mangfald. (pp. 131-146). Oslo: Novus Forlag.

Bialystok, E. (2014). Language experience changes language and cognitive ability: Implications for social policy. In B. Spolsky, O. Inbar-Lourie, & M. Tannenbaum (Eds.), Challenges for language education and policy: Making space for people. (pp. 259-269). New York City: Routledge.

Friesen, D.C., & Bialystok, E. (2013). Control and representation in bilingualism: Implications for pedagogy. In J. Schwieter (Ed.), Innovative research and practices in second language acquisition and bilingualism. (pp. 223 – 240). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Bialystok, E. (2013). Impact of bilingualism on language and literacy development. In T. Bhatia & B. Ritchie (Eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, Second Edition. (pp. 624-648). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Bialystok, E., & Barac, R. (2013). Cognitive effects. In F. Grosjean & P. Li (Eds.), The Psycholinguistics of bilingualism. (pp. 192-213). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Luk, G. & Bialystok, E. (2011). Language representation and cognitive control in bilinguals: An insight for cross-linguistic dyslexic research. In P. McCardle, J.-R. Lee, B. Miller & O. Tzeng (Eds.), Dyslexia across languages: Orthography and the brain-gene-behavior Link. (pp. 281-293). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.

Bialystok, E. (2011). How analysis and control lead to advantages and disadvantages in bilingual processing. In C. Sanz & R.P. Leow (Eds.), Implicit and Explicit conditions, Processes and Knowledge in SLA and Bilingualism. (pp. 49-58). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Bialystok, E., & Feng, X. (2010). Language proficiency and its implications for monolingual and bilingual children.  In A.Y. Durgunoglu & C. Goldenberg (Eds.), Dual language learners: The development and assessment of oral and written language.  (pp. 121-138). New York: Guilford Press.

Bialystok, E. (2010). Experience and the mind: Psycholinguistic implications of bilingualism. In B. Bokus (Ed.), Studies in the Psychology of Language and Communication. In honor of Ida Kurcz. (pp. 183-190). Warsaw: Matrix Press.

Craik, F.I.M. & Bialystok, E. (2010). Les effets du bilinguisme sur le veillissement cognitif.  In D. Brouillet (Ed.), Le Viellissement Cognitif Normal. Paris: DeBoeck.

Bialystok, E., & Craik, F.I.M. (2010). Structure and process in lifespan cognitive development. In W. F. Overton (Ed.), Cognition, biology, and methods across the lifespan. Volume 1 of the Handbook of life-span development, Editor-in-chief: R. M. Lerner.  (pp. 195 – 225). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Bialystok, E., & Peets, K. (2010).  Bilingualism and cognitive linkages: Learning to read in different languages.  In M. Shatz & L. Wilkinson (Eds.), The education of English language learners: Research to practice. (pp. 133-151). New York: Guildford Press.

Bialystok, E. (2010). Bilingualism at school: Effect on the acquisition of literacy. In P. Griffiths, A.J. Merrison, & A. Bloomer (Eds.), Language in use: A reader. (pp. 190-199). New York: Routledge.

Craik, F.I.M. & Bialystok, E. (2010). Bilingualism and aging: Costs and benefits. In Backman, L. & Nyberg, L. (Eds.), Memory, aging and the brain: A festschrift for Lars-Göran Nilsson.  (pp. 115-131). New York: Psychology Press.

Bialystok, E. (2009). Effects of bilingualism on cognitive and linguistic performance across the lifespan. In I. Gogolin & U. Neumann (Eds.), Streitfall Zweisprachigkeit – The bilingualism controversy. (pp. 53-68). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fur Sozialwissenschaften.

Bialystok, E. (2008).  Cognitive effects of bilingualism across the lifespan. In Chan, H., Jacob, H., & Kapia, E. (Eds.), BUCLD 32: Proceedings of the 32nd annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Volume 1. (pp. 1-15). Cascadila Press.

Bialystok, E. (2008).  Second language learners in the science classroom. In A. Rosebery & B. Warren, (Eds.), Teaching science to English language learners (pp. 107-117).  Washington:  National Science Teachers Association.

Craik, F.I.M., & Bialystok, E. (2008).  Lifespan cognitive development: The roles of representation and control.  In F.I.M. Craik & T.A. Salthouse (Eds.) The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (3rd edition). New York: Psychology Press.

Craik, F.I.M., & Bialystok, E. (2006).  On structure and process in lifespan cognitive development.  In E. Bialystok & F.I.M. Craik (Eds.), Lifespan cognition: Mechanisms of change (pp. 3-14). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bialystok, E. (2006).  Bilingualism at school:  Effect on the acquisition of literacy. In P. McCardle & E. Hoff (Eds.), Child bilingualism: Research on infancy through school age (pp. 107-124).  Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Bialystok, E. (2005). Consequences of bilingualism for cognitive development.  In J.R. Kroll & A. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches (pp. 417-432).  Oxford:  Oxford University Press.

Reprinted in Polish (2007).  Wpływ dwujęzyczności na rozwój poznawczy. In I. Kurcz (Ed.), Psychologiczne problomy dwujęzyczności. (pp. 269-295).  Gdańskie:  Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Bialystok, E.  (2004). Impact of bilingualism on language and literacy development.  In T.K. Bhatia & W.C. Ritchie (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism (pp. 577-601). Oxford:  Blackwell.

Tsukada, K., Birdsong, D., Bialystok, E., Mack, M., Sung, H., and Flege, J. (2003). The perception and production of English /ε / and /æ / by Korean children and adults living in North America. In M. Solé, D. Recasens & J. Romero (Eds) Proceedings of 15th International Congress of Phonetics Sciences (pp. 1589-1592).  Barcelona: Casual Productions.

Bialystok, E. (2002). Cognitive processes of L2 users.  In V. Cook (Ed.), Portraits of the L2 User.  (pp. 145-165).  Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Bialystok, E.  (2001). Literacy: The extension of language through other means. In R.L. Cooper, E. Shohamy, & J. Walters (Eds.), New Perspectives and Issues in Educational Language Policy: A Festschrift for Bernard Dov Spolsky. (pp. 19–33). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Bialystok, E. (2001). Developing bilinguals: Language and cognitive effects in preschool children.  In C. Munoz (Ed.), Trabajos en lingüística aplicada (pp. 3–9). Barcelona: Univerbook.

Bialystok, E., & Hakuta, K. (1999).  Confounded Age: Linguistic and cognitive factors in age differences for second language acquisition.  In D. Birdsong (Ed.), Second language acquisition and the critical period hypothesis (pp. 161–181).  Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bialystok, E., & Jenkin, H. (1998).  L’espace interne: comment les representations mentales affectent la rotation mentale. (Inner Space: How mental representations affect mental rotation.)  In J. Bideaud & Y.Courbois, (Eds.), Image mentale et developpement : de la theorie piagetienne aux neurosciences cognitives (pp. 55-77).  Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Bialystok, E. (1997).  Anatomy of a revolution.  In D. Johnson & K. Erneling (Eds.), The future of the cognitive revolution (pp. 109-113).  New York: Oxford University Press.

Kellerman, E., & Bialystok, E. (1997). On psychological plausibility in the study of communication strategies.  In G. Kasper & E. Kellerman (Eds.), Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives (pp. 31-48). London: Longmans.

Bialystok, E. (1996). Preparing to read: The foundations of literacy.  In H. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior, volume 26 (pp. 1-34). New York: Academic Press.

Bialystok, E. (1995).  Why we need grammar: Confessions of a cognitive generalist. In L.A. Eubank, L. Selinker, & M. Sharwood Smith, (Eds.), The current state of interlanguage: Studies in honor of William E. Rutherford (pp. 55-62). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Bialystok, E. (1994). Towards an explanation of second language acquisition.  In G. Brown, K. Malmkjaer, A. Pollitt, & J. Williams, (Eds.), Language and understanding (pp. 115-138).   Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bialystok, E. (1994). Representation and ways of knowing: Three issues in second language acquisition. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit factors in second language learning:  interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 549-569). London: Academic Press.

Bialystok, E. (1994). Reading comprehension in second and foreign language. In T. Husen & T.N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education, 2nd edition (pp. 4936-4940).  Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Reprinted in: (1996).  International encyclopedia of developmental and instructional psychology (pp. 564-568). Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Bialystok, E. (1993).  Metalinguistic awareness: The development of children’s representations of language.  In C. Pratt & A. Garton (Eds.), Systems of representation in children: development and use (pp. 211-233). London: Wiley & Sons.

Bialystok, E. (1993). Symbolic representation and attentional control in pragmatic competence.  In S. Blum-Kulka & G. Kasper (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 43-57). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bialystok, E. (1992). Selective attention in cognitive processing: The bilingual edge. In R.J. Harris (Ed.), Cognitive processing in bilinguals (pp. 501-513). Amsterdam: North Holland.

Bialystok, E. (1991).  Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In E. Kellerman, R. Phillipson, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign language pedagogy research (pp. 63-78).  Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Bialystok, E. (1991). Metalinguistic dimensions of bilingual language proficiency.  In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language processing in bilingual children (pp. 113-140). London: Cambridge University Press.

Bialystok, E., & Cummins, J. (1991).  Language, cognition, and education of bilingual children.  In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language processing in bilingual children (pp. 222-232).  London:  Cambridge University Press.

Bialystok, E. (1988).  Learning to read: Process and problems in acquisition.  In L. Laurinen & A. Kauppinen (Eds.), AFinLA Yearbook 1988.  Helsinki:  Publications de l’Association Finlandaise de Linguistique Appliquée.

Bialystok, E., & Kellerman, E. (1987). Communication strategies in the classroom.  In B. Das (Ed.), Communication and learning in the classroom community. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.

Bialystok, E. (1987). A psycholinguistic framework for exploring the basis of secondlanguage proficiency.  In W. Rutherford & M. Sharwood Smith (Eds.), Grammar and second language teaching. Rowley, MA:  Newbury House.

Bialystok, E., & Olson, D.R. (1987). Spatial categories: The perception and conceptualisation of spatial relations.  In S. Harnad (Ed.), Categorical perception (pp. 511531). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bialystok, E. (1985).  Foreign language learning.  In T. Husen & T.N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (pp. 19101927). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Bialystok, E., & Ryan, E. B. (1985).  A metacognitive framework for the development of first and second language skills. In D.L. ForrestPressley, G.E. Mackinnon & T.G. Waller (Eds.), Metacognition, cognition, and human performance (pp. 207252). New York: Academic Press.

Bialystok, E. (1984). Strategies in interlanguage learning and performance. In A. Davies, C. Criper, & A.P.R. Howatt (Eds.), Interlanguage (pp. 3748). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Bialystok, E. (1983). Inferencing: Testing the ‘hypothesis testing’ hypothesis. In H.W. Seliger & M. Long (Eds.), Classroom oriented research in language learning (pp.104-123).  Rowley, MA:  Newbury House.

Bialystok, E. (1983).  Some factors in the selection and implementation of communication strategies. In C. Faerch & G. Kasper (Eds.), Strategies in interlanguage communication (pp.100-118).  London:  Longmans.

Olson, D. R., & Bialystok, E. (1982).  Spatial cognition:  The mental representation of objects and forms.  In B. de Gelder (Ed.), Knowledge and representation.  Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Bialystok, E. (1981). Some evidence for the integrity and interaction of two knowledge sources.  In R. Anderson (Ed.), New dimensions in research on the acquisition and use of a second language.  Rowley, MA:  Newbury House.

Bialystok, E. (1980).  A theoretical model of second language learning.  In K. Croft (Ed.), Readings on English as a second language, 2nd Edition.  Cambridge, MA:  Winthrop Publishers.

Bialystok, E. (1979). Developing representations for space: Cultural and cognitive factors.  In E. J. Sacca & J. J. Victoria (Eds.), Presentations on Art Education Research: Perception, Cognition and Representation I.  Montreal:  Concordia University.

Bialystok, E. (1978). Language skills and the learner: The classroom perspective. In C.H. Blatchford & J. Schachter (Eds.), On TESOL '78:  EFL Policies, Programs, Practices. Washington, DC: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.


Non-refereed Articles

Bialystok, E. (2010). Experience and the mind: The case of bilingualism. Psynopsis, 32, 17.

Bialystok, E. (2006). Second-language acquisition and bilingualism at an early age and the impact on early cognitive development. In R.E. Tremblay, R.G. Barr, R. deV. Peters (eds)., Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. Available at

In French: L’acquisition d’une deuxième langue, le bilinguisme pendant la petite enfance et leur impact sur le développement cognitif précoce.

Bialystok, E. (1995). Incomprehensible input. The Clarion, 1, 19-20.

Bialystok, E. (1990). Connaissances linguistiques et contrôle des activités de langage. Français dans le Monde, 50-58.

Bialystok, E. (1982).  Le developpement de la capacité en langue 2: approche differenciée. Encrages, 8/9, 91‑97.

Bialystok, E. (1982). A differentiation approach to the development of language proficiency.  Cornucopia, 3, 124‑131.

Gutfleisch, I., Rieck, B., Dittmar, N., Bialystok, E., Chaudron, C., & Frohlich, M. (1980).  Interimsprachen‑ und Fehleranalyse, Teilkommentierte Bibliographie zur Zweitspracherwerbsforschung 1967‑1978 (Teil 2) Linguistische Berichte, 65, 51‑81.

Gutfleisch, I., Rieck, B., Dittmar, N., Bialystok, E., Chaudron, C., & Frohlich, M. (1979).  Interimsprachen‑ und Fehleranalyse, Teikommentierte Bibliographie zur Sweitspracherwerbsforschung 1967‑1978 (Teil 1) Linguistische Berichte, 64, 105‑142.

Bialystok, E. (1979).  Discovering the child through pictures.  The Image, 4, 14‑20.

Bialystok, E., & Frohlich, M. (1978). Second language research and the classroom.  TESL Talk, 9, 61‑65.